5- Project Quality Management

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1. 1

39. Questions . 39

60. Thank you . 60

23. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) 23

30. Perform Quality Assurance ( 8.2 ) 30

38. Perform Quality Control ( 8.3 ) 38

12. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) 12 Seven Basic Quality Tools

2. Project Quality Management Unit 8 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

42. 2 ) Pareto charts helps the project manager: A ) Focus on the most critical issues to improve quality. B ) Focus on stimulating thinking. C ) Explore a desired future outcome. D ) Determine if a process is out of control. 42

43. 2 ) Pareto charts helps the project manager: A ) Focus on the most critical issues to improve quality. B ) Focus on stimulating thinking. C ) Explore a desired future outcome. D ) Determine if a process is out of control. 43

44. 3 ) which of the following is TRUE of inspections? A ) They may not be conducted by the project team. B ) They test future desires of prospective customers. C ) They can only be conducted on the final product. D ) They prevent defective deliverables from reaching the customer. 44

45. 3 ) which of the following is TRUE of inspections? A ) They may not be conducted by the project team. B ) They test future desires of prospective customers. C ) They can only be conducted on the final product. D ) They prevent defective deliverables from reaching the customer. 45

50. 6 ) all the following are not examples of quality assurance EXEPT? A ) Inspection. B ) Process analysis. C ) Pareto chart. D ) Fishbone diagram. 50

51. 6 ) all the following are not examples of quality assurance EXEPT? A ) Inspection. B ) Process analysis. C ) Pareto chart. D ) Fishbone diagram. 51

58. 10 ) Evaluating overall project performance regularly is part of : A ) Quality management. B ) Quality assurance. C ) Quality planning. D ) Quality control. 58

59. 10 ) Evaluating overall project performance regularly is part of : A ) Quality management. B ) Quality assurance. C ) Quality planning. D ) Quality control. 59

13. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Control Charts (Tools & Techniques) Graphic display of results over a period of time to determine if a process is in control 13

40. 1 ) A project manager is using a cause and effect diagram with the team to determine how various factors might be linked to potential problems. In what part of the quality management process is the project manager involved? A ) Quality analysis. B ) Perform quality assurance. C ) Perform quality control. D ) Plan quality. 40

41. 1 ) A project manager is using a cause and effect diagram with the team to determine how various factors might be linked to potential problems. In what part of the quality management process is the project manager involved? A ) Quality analysis. B ) Perform quality assurance. C ) Perform quality control. D ) Plan quality. 41

14. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Control Charts (Tools & Techniques) Rule of 7 Seven or more consecutive points on the same side of the Mean indicates a need to investigate, regardless if they fall within the control limits 14

54. 8 ) when a product or service completely meets a customer ’ s requirements : A ) Quality is achieved. B ) The cost of quality is high. C ) The cost of quality is low. D ) The customer pays the minimum price. 54

55. 8 ) when a product or service completely meets a customer ’ s requirements : A ) Quality is achieved. B ) The cost of quality is high. C ) The cost of quality is low. D ) The customer pays the minimum price. 55

17. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Sample Process Flowchart 17 Flowcharting (Tools & Techniques) Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

56. 9 ) Quality is : A ) Meeting and exceeding the customer ’ s expectations. B ) Adding extras to make the customer happy. C ) The degree to which the project meets requirements. D ) Conformance to management ’ s requirements. 56

57. 9 ) Quality is : A ) Meeting and exceeding the customer ’ s expectations. B ) Adding extras to make the customer happy. C ) The degree to which the project meets requirements. D ) Conformance to management ’ s requirements. 57

48. 5 ) which of the following helps a project manager determine possible causes of potential problems and actual problems? A ) The 50 / 50 rule. B ) A fishbone diagram. C ) A control chart. D ) A Pareto chart . 48

49. 5 ) which of the following helps a project manager determine possible causes of potential problems and actual problems? A ) The 50 / 50 rule. B ) A fishbone diagram. C ) A control chart. D ) A Pareto chart . 49

52. 7 ) Five of the seven phases on the project contain work that is substantially similar. What MUST the project manager do? A ) See what can be done to make sure the work is carefully reworded to remove similarity. B ) Make sure the same resource completes all the similar work packages. C ) Plan in continuous improvement activities. D ) Make sure the first and last of these work packages is scheduled close in time to each other. 52

53. 7 ) Five of the seven phases on the project contain work that is substantially similar. What MUST the project manager do? A ) See what can be done to make sure the work is carefully reworded to remove similarity. B ) Make sure the same resource completes all the similar work packages. C ) Plan in continuous improvement activities. D ) Make sure the first and last of these work packages is scheduled close in time to each other. 53

31. Perform Quality Control ( 8.3 ) • The process of monitoring and controlling results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes • Quality control is performed throughout the project 31 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

7. • Process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product. • Quality planning should be performed in parallel with other project planning processes. 7 Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

46. 4 ) A control chart shows that the last eight pipes produced were all less than average weight. You need to inform management that there is a problem because the situation violates the : A ) Rule of seven. B ) Rule of eight . C ) 50 / 50 rule. D ) 3 sigma rule. 46

47. 4 ) A control chart shows that the last eight pipes produced were all less than average weight. You need to inform management that there is a problem because the situation violates the : A ) Rule of seven. B ) Rule of eight . C ) 50 / 50 rule. D ) 3 sigma rule. 47

25. Perform Quality Assurance ( 8.2 ) • Project Management Plan (Input) • Quality Metrics (Input) • Work Performance information (Input) • Quality Control Measurements (Input) 25 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

18. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Design of Experiments (Tools & Techniques) Statistical method for identifying which factors may influence specific variables of a product or process under development or in production. For example, Automotive designers use this technique to determine which combination of suspension and tires will produce the most desirable ride characteristics at a reasonable cost. 18 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

16. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Flowcharting (Tools & Techniques) • The depiction in a diagram format of the inputs, process actions, and outputs of one or more processes within a system • Helps to analyze how problems occur • Shows activities, decision points, and the order of processing • Can help the project team anticipate what and where quality problems might occur and thus help develop approaches for dealing with them 16

35. Perform Quality Control ( 8.3 ) Run Chart (Tools & Techniques) Similar to a control chart without displayed limits, a run chart shows the history and pattern of variation. Used in Trend analysis to monitor. • Technical performance. How many errors or defects have been identified, and how many remain uncorrected? • Cost and schedule performance. How many activities per period were completed with significant variances? 35

24. Perform Quality Assurance ( 8.2 ) • The process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used. • A quality assurance department, or similar organization, often oversees quality assurance activities. • Quality Assurance provides an umbrella for continuous process improvement, which is an iterative means for improving the quality of all processes. 24

32. Perform Quality Control ( 8.3 ) • Project Management Plan (Input) • Quality Metrics (Input) • Quality Checklists (Input) • Work Performance Measurements (Input) • Approved Change Requests (Input) • Deliverables (Input) • Organizational Process Assets (Input) 32

5. Quality vs. Grade • Quality Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements • Grade Grade is a category assigned to products or services having the same functional use but different technical characteristics ( while failing to meet quality requirements is always a problem, low grade may not be) • Project manager and project management team are responsible for determining and delivering the required level of both quality and grade 5 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

15. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Benchmarking (Tools & Techniques) Involves comparing actual or planned project practices to those of other projects in order to: • Generate ideas for improvement • Provide a standard by which to measure performance • Can be done within the organization or with other organizations which have similar processes 15 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

36. Perform Quality Control ( 8.3 ) • Quality Control Measurements (Output) • Validated Changes (Output) • Validated Deliverables (Output) • Organizational Process Assets updates (Output) • Change Requests (Output) • Project Management Plan updates (Output) 36 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

10. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Cost of Quality ( Tools & Techniques) • All costs incurred in preventing nonconformance to requirements, and failing to meet requirements (rework). • Failure costs are often categorized into  Internal (found by the project) and  External (found by the customer). • Failure costs are also called cost of poor quality. 10 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

19. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Quality Management Plan (Outputs) • Describes how the project management team implements the performing organization's quality policy • Provides input to the overall project management plan and must address quality control (QC), quality assurance (QA), and continuous process improvement for the project Quality Checklists (Outputs) A Checklist is a structured tool, used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed and items to inspect. 19 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

8. • Project management plan(Input) • Stakeholder Register (Input) • Requirements documentation (Input) • Risk Register (Input) – Threats and opportunities that may impact quality • Enterprise Environmental Factors (Input) – Governmental agency regulations, Rules, standards, • Organizational Process Assets (Input) 8 Plan Quality( 8.1 )

26. Perform Quality Assurance ( 8.2 ) Quality Audits (Tool) • A Q uality Audit is a structured, independent review to determine whether project activities comply with the organizational and project policies, processes, and procedures. • The objective of a quality audit is to identify inefficient and ineffective policies, processes, and procedures in use on the project • Quality audits confirm the implementation of approved change requests, corrective actions, defect repairs, and preventive action 26

21. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Process Improvement Plan (Outputs) Details the steps of analyzing processes that facilitate the identification of waste and non - value added activity Areas to consider include: Process boundaries Which describe the purpose, start, and end of processes, their inputs and outputs, data required, and the owner and stakeholder of the processes Process configuration Flowchart of processes to facilitate analysis with interfaces identified Process metrics Maintain control over status of processes Targets for improved performance Guides the process improvement activities 21

33. Perform Quality Control ( 8.3 ) Cause - and - Effect Diagram (Tools & Techniques) The Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram can also contain probabilities Major defect effect Time Material Machine Personnel Energy Method Measurement Environment Potential causes 33

27. Perform Quality Assurance ( 8.2 ) Process Analysis (Tool) • Follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements from an organizational and technical standpoint • Examines problems experienced, constraints experienced, and non - value added activities identified during process operation • Includes root cause analysis , a specific technique used to  Analyze a problem/situation  Determine the underlying causes that lead to it  Create preventive actions for similar problems 27

34. Perform Quality Control ( 8.3 ) Pareto Chart (Tools & Techniques) • Histogram that shows how many results were generated by type or category • Plots the number of defects (or other results) by the order of their frequency • Used to identify the important defects that need to be followed up Pareto's Law ( 20 %) of defect types represent ( 80 %) of defects 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Root cause of overrun 34

9. Cost - Benefit Analysis (Tools & Techniques) • A business case for each quality activity compares the cost of the quality step to the expected benefit. • The primary benefits of meeting quality requirements can include  Less rework,  Higher productivity,  Lower costs, and  increased stakeholder satisfaction. 9 Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

28. Perform Quality Assurance ( 8.2 ) • Organizational Process Assets updates (Output) • Change Requests (Output) • Project Management Plan updates (Output)  Quality management plan,  Cost management plan. • Project Document updates (Output)  Quality audits reports,  Training plans, 28 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

20. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Quality Metrics (Outputs) • An operational definition that describes in very specific terms what something is and how the quality control process measures it • For example, a metric related to the quality objective of staying within the approved budget by ± 10 % • Could be used with  On - time performance,  Budget control,  Defect frequency,  Failure rate, 20 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

3. Project Quality Management • Includes the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies, objectives, and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. • It implements the quality management system through policy and procedures with continuous process improvement activities conducted throughout, as appropriate. • Plan Quality – Identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and product. • Perform Quality Assurance – Auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards • Perform Quality Control – Monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. 3 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

29. Perform Quality Assurance ( 8.2 ) inputs 1 . Project management plan 2 . Quality metrics 3 . Work performance information 4 . Quality control measurements Tools & techniques 1 . Plan quality and perform quality control tools & techniques 2 . Quality audits 3 . Process analysis outputs 1 . Organizational process assets updates 2 . Change requests 3 . Project management plan updates 4 . Project document updates 29

11. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) Cost of Quality ( Tools & Techniques) Cost of conformance (Money spent during the project) to avoid failures  Prevention costs ( build a quality product) . Training . Document processes . Equipment . Time to do it right  Appraisal costs (assess the quality) . Testing . Inspections Cost of nonconformance (Money spend during and after the project) because of failures  Internal failure costs ( failure found by the project) . Rework  External failure costs ( failure found by the customer) . Liabilities . Lost business 11 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

6. Modern Quality • Customer satisfaction – Understanding, evaluating, defining, and managing expectations so that customer requirements are met ( conformance to requirements & fitness for use ) • Prevention over inspection – The cost of preventing mistakes is generally much less than the cost of correcting them ( quality is planned, designed, and built in not inspected in) • Continuous improvement (Kaizen) – alter (Kai) and improve (Zen) – TQM and Six Sigma, should improve the quality of the project ’ s management as well as the quality of the project ’ s product. ( plan - do - check - act ) cycle • Management responsibility ( responsibility of management to provide the resources needed to succeed ) 6 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

37. Perform Quality Control ( 8.3 ) Inputs 1 . Project management plan 2 . Quality metrics 3 . Quality checklists 4 . Work performance measurements 5 . Approved change requests 6 . Deliverables 7 . Organizational process assets Tools & techniques 1 1 - Seven basic quality tools 2 Cause & effect diagrams Control charts Flowcharting Histogram Pareto chart Run charts Scatter diagram 2 2 . Statistical sampling 3 3 . Inspection 4 . Approved change requests review outputs 1 . Quality control measurements 2 . Validated changes 3 . Validated deliverables 4 . Organizational process assets updates 5 . Change requests 6 . Project management plan updates 7 . Project document updates 37

22. Plan Quality( 8.1 ) inputs 1 . Project management plan 2 . Stakeholder register 3 . Requirements documentation 4 . Risk register 5 . Enterprise environmental factors 6 . Organizational process assets Tools & techniques 1 . Cost - benefit analysis 2 . Cost of quality 3 . Seven basic quality tools 4 . Benchmarking 5 . Design of experiments 6 . Statistical sampling 7 . Additional quality planning tools. 8 . Meetings outputs 1 . Quality management plan 2 . Quality metrics 3 . Quality checklists 4 . Process improvement plan 5 . Project document updates 22 Eng.elsaka 09 @gmail.com

4. 4 Process Group Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Controlling Closing Knowledge Area Integration Develop Project C harter Develop Project Management Plan Direct & Manage Project Execution Monitor & Control Project Work Close Project or Phase Perform Integrated Change Control Scope Plan Scope Management Collect Requirements Validate Scope Define Scope Control Scope Create WBS Time Plan Schedule Management Define Activities Control Schedule Sequence Activities Estimate Activity Resource Estimate Activity Duration Develop Schedule Cost Plan Cost Management Estimate Costs Control Costs Determine Budget Quality Plan Quality Management Perform Quality Assurance Control Quality HR Develop HR Plan Acquire Project Team Develop Project Team Manage Project Team Comm. Plan Communication management Manage Communications Control Communication Risk Plan Risk Management Control Risks Identify Risks Perform Qualitative Analysis Perform Quantitative Analysis Plan Risk Responses Procureme nt Plan Procurements Conduct Procurements Control Procurements Close Procurements Stakeholde

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