3- Project Time Management

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1.

2. Project Time Management Unit 6

4. Dependency Relationships in the Precedence Dependency Relationships in the Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Diagramming Method (PDM) Dependency Relationships in the Precedence Dependency Relationships in the Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) Diagramming Method (PDM) ٤

15. Precedence Diagramming Method Precedence Diagramming Method Exercise Exercise ٥

16. Precedence Diagramming Method Precedence Diagramming Method Exercise Exercise ٦

29. 6.2 Define Activities 

30. 6.2 Define Activities 

35. 6.3 Sequence Activities ٥

36. 6.3 Sequence Activities ٦

42. 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources ٤

43. 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources ٤

50. 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations

٥

51. 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations ٥

60. 6.6 Develop Schedule

٦

61. 6.6 Develop Schedule ٦

67. 6.7 Control Schedule ٦

68. 6.7 Control Schedule ٦

69. Questions ٦

58. 6.6 Develop Schedule (Outputs) ٥

70. 1- Which of the following is the BEST to do to try t o complete your project two months earlier? A ) Tell senior management that the project’s criti cal path does not allow the project to be finished earlier. B ) Tell your boss. C ) Meet with the team and look for options for cras hing or fast tracking the critical path. D ) Work hard and see what the project status is ne xt month.

72. 2- A problem occurs on an activity with free float a nd the project manager has extended its duration. What is MOST likely to be affected? A) Project duration B) Resource schedules C) Project scope management plan D) The latest start for the successor activity

74. 3- An activity has an early start (ES) of day 3, a l ate start (LS) of day 13, an early finish (EF) of day 9 and a late finish (LF) of day 19. what is the activity fl oat? A) 10 B) 6 C) 3 D) 19 ٤

75. 3- An activity has an early start (ES) of day 3, a l ate start (LS) of day 13, an early finish (EF) of day 9 and a late finish (LF) of day 19. what is the activity fl oat? A) 10 B) 6 C) 3 D) 19 ٥

76. 4- An activity has an early start (ES) of day 3, a l ate start (LS) of day 13, an early finish (EF) of day 9 and a late finish (LF) of day 19. what is the duration of this activi ty? A) 3 B) 6 C) 7 D) 10 ٦

82. 7- Total float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the : A ) project. B ) completion date required by the customer. C ) early start of its successor. D ) project completion date. 

86. 9- Lag means: A ) The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project finish date. B ) The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of its succes sor. C ) Waiting time D ) The product of a forward and backward pass ٦

88. 10- Management has decided to “crash” a project to a void penalty payments for late deliveries. Additional co sts are expected. To crash the project, either overtime or additional resources should be assigned to: A ) all activities B ) only those activities with the longest time dur ations C ) those activities on the critical path beginning with the lowest additional cost activities D ) those activities with the greatest degree of ri sk 

20. 6.1 Plan Schedule Management • Plan Schedule Management is the process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, dev eloping, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule

17. . Exercise 30 minutes

80. a) Zero days 6- Management wants the project completed in 40 days . The cost performance index (CPI) is 1.1, the project critica l path duration is 38 days with a standard deviation of two days. What is the maximum project float? b) Two days c) Four days d) One day 

98. Thank you Thank you . 

73. 2- A problem occurs on an activity with free float a nd the project manager has extended its duration. What is MOST likely to be affected? A) Project duration B) Resource schedules C) Project scope management plan D) The latest start for the successor activity 

77. 4- An activity has an early start (ES) of day 3, a l ate start (LS) of day 13, an early finish (EF) of day 9 and a late finish (LF) of day 19. what is the duration of this activi ty? A) 3 B) 6 C) 7 D) 10

94. 13- Any form of network analysis in which scheduling decisions, such as start and finish date s, are driven by resource management concern is called resource------------ A ) allocation A ) allocation B ) leveling C ) partitioning D ) quantification ٤

37. 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources Estimate activity resources is the process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity. perform each activity. 

71. 1- Which of the following is the BEST to do to try t o complete your project two months earlier? A ) Tell senior management that the project’s criti cal path does not allow the project to be finished earlier. B ) Tell your boss. C ) Meet with the team and look for options for cras hing or fast tracking the critical path. D ) Work hard and see what the project status is ne xt month.

81. 6- Management wants the project completed in 40 days . The cost performance index (CPI) is 1.1, the project critica l path duration is 38 days with a standard deviation of two days. What is the maximum project float? a) Zero days b) Two days c) Four days d) One day 

83. 7- Total float is the amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the : A ) project. B ) completion date required by the customer. C ) early start of its successor. D ) project completion date. 

87. 9- Lag means: A ) The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project finish date. B ) The amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of its succes sor. C ) Waiting time D ) The product of a forward and backward pass 

89. 10- Management has decided to “crash” a project to a void penalty payments for late deliveries. Additional co sts are expected. To crash the project, either overtime or additional resources should be assigned to: A ) all activities B ) only those activities with the longest time dura tions C ) those activities on the critical path beginning with the lowest additional cost activities D ) those activities with the greatest degree of ris k 

23. 6.1 Plan Schedule Management (Outputs) • Schedule Management Plan A component of the project management plan that est ablishes the criteria and the activities for developing, monitoring, and cont rolling the schedule. 

95. 13- Any form of network analysis in which scheduling decisions, such as start and finish date s, are driven by resource management concern is called resource------------ A ) allocation A ) allocation B ) leveling C ) partitioning D ) quantification ٥

52. • Develop schedule is the process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule. 6.6 Develop Schedule • Developing an acceptable project schedule is often an iterative process. ٥

84. 8- Your boss tells you that one of your resources is needed on another project. All the activities in th e chart are occurring at the same time. Assuming that all the resources working on which activity would you pick to move to the other project? A ) Activity D Float (month) activity Start B ) Activity C C ) Activity H D ) Activity B 2 B 1 C 0 D 1 F 0 G 4 H 0 I 3 E End ٤

6. . Applying Leads and Lags A Lead Allows an acceleration of the successor activity. A Lag Directs a delay in the successor activity ٦

8. A B C 2 Days 12 Days 5 Days Network Diagramming Analysis A network diagrams is a schematic display of project’s activities and dependencies Start Finish D E F 6 Days 7 Days 3 Days 

40. Bottom -Up Estimating When an activity cannot be estimated with a reasona ble degree of confidence, the work within the activity is decompo sed into more detail. The resource needs are estimated. These est imates are then aggregated into a total quantity for each of the ac tivity’s resources. 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources (Tools & Techniques)

٤ Project Management Software Project management software has the capability to h elp plan, organize, and manage resources pools and develop re sources estimates

18. You are the project manager for project with the following network diagram A. Draw the network diagram ? B. Calculate all of the paths in this network diagram? C. What is the duration of the critical path of this network diagram? Estimate in months Preceding Activity task 0 Start 2 Start 1 3 Start 2 diagram? D. What is the float of task 3? E. What is the float of task 5? F. What is the float of task 1? G. What is the slack of task 7? 7 1 3 9 1,2 4 3 2 5 2 3 6 8 4 7 0 5,6,7 End 

44. 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations • Is the process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estim ated resources. • The input for the estimates of activity duration or iginate from the person or group on the project team who is most fam iliar with the nature of the work in the specific activity. • Most project management software for scheduling wil l handle this situation by using project calendar and alternative work-period resource calendars that are usually identified by t he resource that require specific work periods. ٤٤

45. 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations (Inputs) Activity List Activity Attributes Activity Resource Requirements ٤٥ Activity Resource Requirements Resource Calendars Project Scope Statement Constraints and assumptions .

28. 6.2 Define Activities (Outputs) Activity List The activity list includes the activity identifier and the scope of work description for each activity in sufficient detail to ensure that the project team members understand wha t work is required to be completed.  Activity Attributes Activity attributes extend the description of the a ctivity by identifying the multiple components associated with each activity. Milestone List A milestone list identifies all milestones and indi cates whether the milestone is mandatory, or optional.

31. 6.3 Sequence Activities • Sequence activities is the process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities. • It may be necessary to use lead or lag time • It may be necessary to use lead or lag time between activities to support a realistic and achievable project schedule. 

85. A ) Activity D Float (month) activity Start 8- Your boss tells you that one of your resources is needed on another project. All the activities in th e chart are occurring at the same time. Assuming that all the resources working on which activity would you pick to move to the other project? B ) Activity C C ) Activity H D ) Activity B 2 B 1 C 0 D 1 F 0 G 4 H 0 I 3 E End ٥

49. • Activity Duration Estimates • Project Document Updates  Activity Attributes 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations (Outputs) ٤

90. 11- Using the chart, the resource for activity A is assig ned to an additional, more important project. As a result the r esource will not be able to devote as much time to your project. Acti vity A will now take 10 weeks. How does this affect the project? A) There are three critical paths Estimates (weeks) Preceding activity Activity 0 Start B) The project will be delayed C) The project is riskier D) Activity D will be delayed 0 Start 3 Start C 6 C D 8 C A 4 D E 5 A,E B 3 E F 0 B,F end 

10. Network Diagram Analysis 2 Days The Forward Pass ... The Forward Pass ... Early Start ES Box Early Finish EF Box 0 2

Start A D 6 Days 0 0 0 6

92. 12- All of the following processes are included in project time management except : A ) define activities B ) estimate activity durations B ) estimate activity durations C ) control schedule D ) plan resources 

25. 6.2 Define Activities (Inputs) Scope Baseline Enterprise Environmental Factors • Project management information system (PMIS). ٥ Organizational Process Assets • Existing formal and informal activity planning-rela ted policies, procedures, and guidelines, • Lessons-learned knowledge base

39. 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources (Tools & Techniques) Expert Judgment Any group or person with specialized knowledge in r esource planning and estimating can provide such expertise. Alternatives Analysis Include using various levels of resources capabilit y or skills, different  Include using various levels of resources capabilit y or skills, different size or type of machines, different tools, and make -or-buy decisions regarding the resources. Published Estimating Data Several companies routinely publish updated product ion rates and unit costs of resources, and equipment for differen t countries, and geographical locations within countries.

63. 6.7 Control Schedule (Inputs) • Project Management Plan • Project Schedule • Work Performance information ٦ • Organizational Process Assets

64. 6.7 Control Schedule (Tools & Techniques) Performance Reviews Measure, compare, and analyze schedule performance s uch as actual start and finish dates, percent complete, and remai ning duration for work in progress. Variance analysis ٦٤ Variance analysis • Schedule performance measurements (SV, SPI) are use d to assess the magnitude of variation to the original schedule baseline. • The total float variance is an essential planning c omponent to evaluate project time performance.

93. 12- All of the following processes are included in project time management except : A ) define activities B ) estimate activity durations B ) estimate activity durations C ) control schedule D ) plan resources 

33. • Precedence Diagramming method (PDM) • Dependency Determination • Applying Leads and Lags 6.3 Sequence Activities (Tools & Techniques) • Applying Leads and Lags 

9. Network Diagramming Activities Activities Code Code Activity Activity Description Description Resources Resources Needed Needed Original Original Duration Duration Predecessor Predecessor Logic Logic Start Start 00 ------------- ------------- AA 22 Start Start BB 1212 AA BB 1212 AA CC 55 B & D B & D DD 66 Start Start EE 77 DD FF 33 EE Finish Finish 00 C & F C & F 

55. Resource Leveling Schedule network analysis technique in which schedu ling decisions are driven by resource constraints and applied to a schedule model that has already been analyzed by the critical pat h method. Applying Leads and Lags Leads and lags are refinements applied during netwo rk analysis to 6.6 Develop Schedule (Tools & Techniques) ٥٥ Leads and lags are refinements applied during netwo rk analysis to develop a viable schedule. Scheduling Tool Automated scheduling tools expedite the scheduling process by generating start and finish dates based on the inpu ts of activities, network diagrams, resources and activity durations.

91. 11- Using the chart, the resource for activity A is assig ned to an additional, more important project. As a result the r esource will not be able to devote as much time to your project. Acti vity A will now take 10 weeks. How does this affect the project? A) There are three critical paths Estimates (weeks) Preceding activity Activity 0 Start B) The project will be delayed C) The project is riskier D) Activity D will be delayed 0 Start 3 Start C 6 C D 8 C A 4 D E 5 A,E B 3 E F 0 B,F end 

21. 6.1 Plan Schedule Management (Inputs) • Project Management Plan • Project Charter The project charter defines the summary milestone sch edule and project approval requirements that will influence the managem ent of the project schedule. • Enterprise Environmental Factors • Organizational Process Assets

22. 6.1 Plan Schedule Management (Tools & Techniques) • Expert Judgment • Analytical Techniques The Plan Schedule Management process may involve ch oosing strategic options to estimate and schedule the project such a s: scheduling methodology, scheduling tools and techniques, estim ating approaches, formats, and project management software. formats, and project management software. • Meetings

27. 6.2 Define Activities (Tools & Techniques) Templates A standard activity list or a portion of an activit y list from a previous project is often usable as a template for a new project. Expert Judgment Expert Judgment Project team members or other experts, who are expe rienced and skilled in developing detailed project scope st atements, the WBS, and project schedules, can provide experti se in defining activities.

78. 5- Based on the chart, a resource on your project fr om the consumer affairs department comes to you to tell yo u that they are taking a two-week leave due to a family em ergency. They are assigned to activity F, which is currently in progress. This is a problem because activity F has: a) One week of float Estimate (months) Preceding activity Activity Start 3 Start A b) Two months of float c) One month of float d) No float 3 Start A 7 Start B 2 A C 4 A D 5 C, D E 9 B F 3 E, F G G end 

47. 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations (Tools & Techniques) Expert Judgment Expert judgment can provide duration estimate inform ation or recommend maximum activity duration from prior similar projec ts. Analogous Estimating • This technique relies on the actual duration of pre vious similar projects as ٤ the basis for estimating the duration of the curren t project. • Generally less costly and time consuming than other techniques, but it is also generally less accurate. Reserve Analysis Duration estimates may include contingency reserve, (time reserve or buffers) into the overall project schedule to account for sc hedule uncertainty.

54. 6.6 Develop Schedule (Tools & Techniques) Schedule network analysis • Is the technique that generate the project schedule • It employs various analytical techniques, such as C ritical Path Method, Critical Chain Method, what-if analysis, an d resource leveling to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities ٥٤ Critical Chain Method • A schedule network analysis technique that modifies the project schedule to account for limited resources. • Applied after critical path is identified, resource availability is entered and the resource-limited schedule result is determined, the resulting schedule often has an altered critical pa th.

32. • Activity List • Activity Attributes • Milestone List 6.3 Sequence Activities (Inputs) • Project Scope Statement • Organizational Process Assets 

56. Schedule Compression Shortens the project schedule without changing the project scope, to meet schedule constraints, imposed dates, or other schedule 0bjectives. Crashing: Approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, or paying to 6.6 Develop Schedule (Tools & Techniques) ٥٦ Approving overtime, bringing in additional resources, or paying to expedite delivery to activities on the critical pat h. Fast tracking: Doing activities in parallel that would normally be done in sequence. Fast tracking often results in rework and usually i ncreases risk

62. • Determining the current status of the project schedule • Influencing the factors that create schedule 6.7 Control Schedule • Influencing the factors that create schedule changes • Determining that the schedule has changed • Managing the actual changes when and as they occur ٦

19. . Start I III VI End II IV VII 2 7 3 8 9 V 2 3 B. 1 - 3 - 6 : 2 + 7 + 2 = 11 months 1 - 4 - 7 : 2 + 9 + 8 = 19months 2 - 4 - 7 : 3 + 9 + 8 = 20months 2 - 5 : 3 + 3 = 6 months C. 20 months D. Using float = LS – ES = 9 months E. 14 months F. 1 month G. Since Task VII is in the critical path by definition the slack is 0. 

79. a) One week of float Estimate (months) Preceding activity Activity Start 3 Start A 5- Based on the chart, a resource on your project fr om the consumer affairs department comes to you to tell yo u that they are taking a two-week leave due to a family em ergency. They are assigned to activity F, which is currently in progress. This is a problem because activity F has: b) Two months of float c) One month of float d) No float 3 Start A 7 Start B 2 A C 4 A D 5 C, D E 9 B F 3 E, F G G end 

26. 6.2 Define Activities (Tools & Techniques) Decomposition • Involves subdividing the project work packages into smaller ,more manageable components called activities. • Activities represent the effort needed to complete a work package. • Defines the final outputs as activities rather than deliverables. ٦ • The activity list, WBS, WBS dictionary can be devel oped either sequentially or concurrently as the basis for devel opment of the final activity list. Rolling Wave Planning I s a form of progressive elaboration planning where the work to be accomplished in the near term is planned in detail and future work is planned at a higher level of the WBS

65. 6.7 Control Schedule (Tools & Techniques) • Project management Software • Resource Leveling • What-if Scenario Analysis ٦٥ • Adjusting Leads and Lags • Schedule Compression • Scheduling Tool

38. Activity List Activity Attributes Resource Calendars • Specify when and how long identified project resour ces will be available during the project. 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources (Inputs)  Enterprise Environmental Factors • Resource availability and skills. Organizational Process Assets • Policies and procedures regarding staffing, • Policies and procedures relating to rental and purc hase of supplies and equipment, and • Historical information regarding types of resources used for similar work on previous projects.

41. Activity Resource Requirements Identifies the types and quantities of resources re quired for each activity in a work package Resource Breakdown Structure The resource breakdown structure is a hierarchical structure of the identified resources by resource category and resou rce type. 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources (Outputs) ٤ identified resources by resource category and resou rce type. Project Document Updates • Activity list, • Activity attributes, and • Resource calendars

96. A B F G H J K C D E I 6 7 10 1 4 3 6 4 8 9 11 ٦ 14 ) What is the duration of the near critical path ? A. 33 B. 44 C. 47 D. 43

97. A B F G H J K C D E I 6 7 10 1 4 3 6 4 8 9 11  14 ) What is the duration of the near critical path ? A. 33 B. 44 C. 47 D. 43

3. Project Time Management Includes the processes required to manage T imely completion of the project. Planning 6 . 1 Plan Schedule Management  6 . 1 Plan Schedule Management 6.2 Define Activities 6.3 Sequence Activities 6.4 Estimate Activity Resources 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations 6.6 Develop Schedule Monitoring and controlling 6.7 Control Schedule

46. 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations (Inputs) Enterprise Environmental Factors • Duration estimating databases and other reference d ata, • Productivity metrics, and • Published commercial information. Organizational Process Assets ٤٦ Organizational Process Assets • Historical duration information, • Scheduling methodology, and • Lessons learned.

12. C 5 Days The Backward Pass ... The Backward Pass ... 19 19 14 19 Network Diagram Analysis Finish C F 3 Days 19 19 Late Start Box Late Finish Box 13 16 14 19 16 19 19 19

48. Parametric Estimating Parametric estimating uses a statistical relationsh ip between historical data and other variables to calculate an estimate for ac tivity parameters, such as cost, budget, and duration. Three-point estimates PERT uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity’s duration 6.5 Estimate Activity Durations (Tools & Techniques) ٤ duration • Most likely: the activity duration is based on analysis of the a verage productivity of the resource. • Optimistic: the activity duration is based on analysis of the b est-case scenario for the activity. • Pessimistic: the activity duration is based on analysis of the w orst-case scenario for the activity T = O+4M+P 6

13. B 2 Days 12 Days 5 Days 0 2 2 14 14 19 Lowest of successor’s Late Start Times Late Finish = The Backward Pass ... The Backward Pass ... Network Diagram Analysis  Start Finish A B C D E F 6 Days 7 Days 3 Days 0 0 0 0 2 6 6 13 13 16 19 19 2 14 19 16 14 19 19 19 0 0 0 2 3 9 9 16

5. Dependency Determination Three types of dependencies are used to define the sequence among the activities • Mandatory dependencies – Those that are contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work. – Are also sometimes referred to as hard logic • Discretionary dependencies ( optional ) – Discretionary dependencies are sometimes referred to as preferred, or soft logic. – Should be fully documented since they can create arb itrary total float values and can Limit later scheduling options. • External dependencies – Involve a relationship between project activities and non-project activities. ٥

66. 6.7 Control Schedule (Outputs) • Work Performance measurements • Organizational Process Assets Updates • Change Requests ٦٦ • Project management Plan Updates  Schedule baseline  Cost baseline • Project Document Updates  Project Schedule

59. Schedule Baseline Is the accepted and approved version of the project schedule. Schedule Data The schedule data for the project schedule includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and 6.6 Develop Schedule (Outputs) ٥ schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and con straints. Project Document Updates • Activity resource requirements • Activity attributes • Calendar • Risk register

57. Project Schedule  As a minimum, the project schedule includes a plann ed start date and planned finish date for each activity.  the project schedule may be presented in summary fo rm, sometimes referred to as the master schedule, or presented in detail. • Milestone Charts 6.6 Develop Schedule (Outputs) ٥ • Milestone Charts these charts are similar to bar charts, but only id entify the scheduled start or completion of major deliverables and key external interfaces. • Bar Charts These charts, with bars representing activities, sh ow activity start and end dates as well as expected durations. • Project Schedule Network Diagrams These diagrams, with activity date information, usu ally show both the project network logic and the project’s cr itical path schedule activities.

14. • Calculates the theoretical early start and finished da tes. • And late start and finish date for all schedule activ ities. • The Critical Path is the longest time the project can last • Total Float (Slack) The amount of time an activity can delay without delaying the project completion date A B Network Diagram Analysis Network Diagram Analysis ٤ A START END E D B

34. • Project schedule network diagram – Are schematic displays of the project’s schedule activities and the logical relationships among them . – Can be produced manually or by using project management software. • Project document updates 6.3 Sequence Activities (Output) • Project document updates Project documents that may be updated include: • Activity lists, • Activity attributes, • Risk register ٤

53. 6.6 Develop Schedule (Inputs) • Activity List • Activity Attributes • Project Schedule network Diagrams • Activity Resource Requirements ٥ • Resource Calendars • Activity Duration Estimates • Project Scope Statement • Enterprise Environmental Factors • Organizational Process Assets

11. 2 Days 12 Days 5 Days The Forward Pass ... The Forward Pass ... 0 2 2 14 14 19 Highest of predecessor’s Early Finish Times Early Start = Network Diagram Analysis Start Finish A B C D E F 6 Days 7 Days 3 Days 0 0 0 0 2 2 14 14 19 6 6 13 13 16 19 19

7. Precedence Diagramming Method AA Start Start DD HH CC BB EE FS + FS + 1515 SSSS Start Start FF HH KK LL End End II GG JJ SS + SS +1010 FS + FS + 1515 FFFF

24. 6.2 Define Activities • Identifying the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables • Project work packages are typically decomposed into smalle r component called activities that represent the work necessary to component called activities that represent the work necessary to complete the work package. • Activities provide a basis for estimating, scheduling, exe cuting, and monitoring and controlling the project work ٤

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